हिंदुओं की प्राचीन और पवित्र सात नागरियों में एक – पुरी, उड़ीसा राज्य के समुद्री तट बसा है। भगवान जगन्नाथ जी का मंदिर विष्णु के आठवें अवतार श्री कृष्ण को समर्पित है। भारत के पूरब में बंगाल की खाड़ी के पूर्वी छौर पर बसी पवित्र सुंदर नागरी – पुरी, उड़ीसा की राजधानी भूवनेश्वर से थोड़ी दूर पर है। आज का उड़ीसा प्राचीन काल में उत्कल प्रदेश के नाम से जाना जाता था। यहाँ पर देश की प्रमुख समृद्ध बंदरगाहें थी, जहां से जावा, सुमात्रा, इन्डोनेशिया, थायलैंड और अन्य कई देशों का इन्हीं बन्दरगाहों के रास्ते व्यापार हुआ करता था। पुरी नागरी को पुराणों में धरती का वैकुंठ कहा गया है। यह भगवान विष्णु जी के चार धामों में से एक है। इसे श्रीक्षेत्र, शक क्षेत्र, नीलांचल, नीलगिरी और श्री जगन्नाथ पुरी भी कहते हैं। ब्रह्म और स्कन्द पुराण के अनुसार यहाँ भगवान विष्णु पुरुषोत्तम नीलमधाव के रूप में अवतरित हुए और सबर जनजाति के परम पूज्य देवता बन गए। सबर जनजाति के देवता होने के कारण यहां भगवान जगन्नाथ जी का रूप कबीलाई देवताओं की तरह ही है। ज्येष्ठ पूर्णिमा से आषाढ़ पूर्णिमा तक सबर जनजाति के सभी वर्ग दैतपति श्री जगन्नाथ जी की सारी रीतियाँ करते हैं। आदिकाल से ये मन्यता चली आ रही है कि भगवान विष्णु जी जब चारों धामों पर बसें अपने धामों की यात्रा पर जाते हैं तो उत्तर में हिमालय की ऊंची चोटियों पर बने अपने धाम बद्रीनाथ में सबसे पहले पहुंचकर स्नान करते हैं फिर पच्छिम में गुजरात के द्वारिका में वस्त्र पहनते हैं। इसके बाद भारत के पूरबी भाग में बसे धाम – पुरी में भोजन कर भारत के दक्षिण भाग के धाम – रामेश्वरम में विश्राम करते हैं। द्वापर युग के बाद से भगवान जगन्नाथ जी अपने बड़े भाई बलभद्र और बहन सुभद्रा जी के साथ पुरी धाम में ही विराजते हैं। यहां हर वर्ष आषाढ़ शुक्ल पक्ष की द्वितीया तिथि को जगन्नाथ रथ यात्रा निकाली जाती है।
BREAKOUT THEME – USE OF MEDIA TO PROMOTE THE MESSAGE OF PEACE : At present, the Internet Technology has grown widely and the Social Media have become tremendous Platform to connect the People. We utilize its implication and uses besides of their different ethnic and religious groups and inter-ethnic dialogues. Recently we have witnessed the Vaccination for Covid 19, Safety & Precautions for Corona Virus and many such cases that have proved the power of Social media. Thus we can say that this was the beginning of a wave, an era in the use of Social Networks to bring people together to fight and protest against violence and established the peace in the civil society.
Social Media is an essential tool and easy medium to spread out the messages from the messengers of peace. Now a day reach a large number of people and has becomes a vital element in today’s life of mankind to promote the peace among the country man and provided the impacts not only national but International platform too. It makes positive difference among the citizen and mobilize them to established the peace. Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, LinkedIn, Koo, others Sites are various Social Networking Blogs, Sites have World Wide impacts and can focus the enormous effects on the human interaction to established the peace among the world wide Community and can save valuable lives of mankind in the world.
In my own opinion; Education plays a vital role in everyone’s life; it transforms a civilization, enlightens our understanding and moulds our characters. Education is playing as a tool to develop self-confidence, good thinking and self regulation among the children. Student as well as any individuals should set a goal to improve themselves, the society around them and their native district. Education exhorted the students and individuals of the society have to aim for the big. Its impact has to modify and transform of our life as IAS, IPS and IFS as well as any great officers of state although have rural back ground. I provoked that Education is the ability to live positively in the face of all the challenges and the contributions of one’s quote to national development. Hence, students should work hard during their school studies and its life, as it is the only solution to succeed in life.
- NAME OF THE BOOK: PARINEETA
- AUTHOR’S NAME: SHARAT CHANDRA CHATTOPADHYAY
- PUBLICATION: PENGUIN PUB., DARIYAGANJ, NEW DELHI
- YEAR OF THE FIRST PUBLICATION : 1914
- YEAR OF THE EDITION PUBLICATION : 2005
- NO. OF THE PAGES : 112 ( PAPERBACK )
- COST OF THE BOOK : Rs. 584.00
- ISBN : 0143033565 / 9780143033561
- DIMENSIONS : 6.61 x 4.25 x 0.31 inches
- WEIGHT : 810 GRAM
SUMMARY OF THE TITLE / BOOK: Parineeta is a novel written by Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay in Calcutta, India during the early part of the 20th century. The word Parineeta is translated in English as married woman. It is a novel of social protest which explores issues of that time period related to class and religion. Originally it is written in Bengali Language which is later translated in Hindi, English and other Languages.
Parineeta (The Married Woman) takes place at the turn of the 20th century during the Bengal Renaissance. The story centers on a poor thirteen-year-old orphan girl, Lalita, who lives with the family of her uncle Gurucharan. Gurucharan has five daughters, and the expense of paying for their weddings has impoverished him. He is forced to take a loan from his neighbour, Nabin Roy, by mortgaging a plot of land with him. The two neighbouring families share a very cordial relationship, although Nabin Roy does covet Gurucharan’s mortgaged plot. Nabin Roy’s wife, Bhuvaneshwari, dotes on the orphan Lalita and showers love upon her; the latter reciprocates even to the extent of addressing Bhuvaneshwari as ‘maa’ (mother). Roy’s younger son Shekharnath (Shekhar), a 25-26-year-old man-about-town, lately turned attorney, has a joking, bantering relationship with Lalita, his mother’s protégée. The young girl adores him like her mentor, and for some strange reasons, ratifies and accepts his possessive attitude towards her.
The advent of a supportive Girin in Lalita’s life, a certain jealousy transpired within Shekhar which tended to moderate Lalita’s increasing associations with Girin who has now extended his helping hand to Gurucharan’s finances and also assisted him in finding a match for Lalita. These situations seemed to stir the instinctual passions of Shekhar and somewhat Lalita for each other and one evening before Shekhar’s tour to the west, the duo secretly gets married with a dramatic exchange of garlands formed of marigolds. But a newly married Lalita had to conceal herself in the veil of her spinsterhood as her uncle Gurucharan quits his fight with the law and orders of Hindu society and embraces Brahmoism inspired from the angelic words of Girin. The society abandons them and the same is followed by Shekhar towards Lalita upon his return (though mixed with covetousness over Girin’s influence on her family). His jeopardies in introducing his wife amidst the society because of the differences in wealth, religion and more importantly due to a precluded marriage of marrying an under-aged woman made him harsh and arrogant towards Lalita who drowned in agony, decides to accompany her family to Munger as a means of healing her psychologically tormented uncle anguished by the sense of isolation. Girin aided them all through his journey to which Gurucharan had his dying wish of marrying his daughter (suggestively indicated to his niece Lalita) which Girin accepts wholeheartedly.
Years pass with the passing of both Gurucharan and Nabin Roy and an eighteen year old Lalita visits her old place one last time for the sake of selling Gurucharan’s house to Nabin Roy’s heirs since the deceased desired the plot for a long time. Shekhar has his marriage fixed in a week but Lalita’s advent questions him over his real wishes but he has heard of Girin’s promise to marry Lalita which must have been fulfilled by now. Tables turn as Girin visits Shekhar with the Legal documents of Gurucharan’s plot and amidst the conversation reveals that he indeed became Gurucharan’s son-in-law as per his promise but never married Lalita but married her cousin Annakali upon her suggestion as Lalita claimed herself to be already married. Shockingly pleased by this, Shekhar regains himself and his now realised love for Lalita goes to his mother and confesses about his marriage with Lalita. The novel ends with consent for this marriage a declaration of union for Shekhar and Lalita. Parinneta as movie first released (Black & White) in 1953 and next (Colorful) in 2019.
Introspection is the process by which directly examining one’s own conscious, mental stress, thoughts and feelings. In psychology, the process of introspection relies on the observation of one’s mental state, while in a spiritual context it may refer to the examination of one’s soul. Introspection is closely related to human self-reflection, self-discovery and contrasted with external observation. The word Introspection was introduced by EB Titchener.
Introspection generally provides a privileged access to one’s own mental states, which are not mediated by other sources of knowledge, so that individual experience of the mind is unique. Introspection can determine any number of mental states including: sensory, bodily, cognitive, emotional and so forth.
Introspection has been a subject of philosophical discussion for thousands of years. The philosopher Plato asked, “why should we not calmly and patiently review our own thoughts, and thoroughly examine and see what these appearances in us really are?’. While introspection is applicable to many facets of philosophical thought it is perhaps best known for its role in epistemology. In this context introspection is often compared with perception, reason, memory, and testimony as a source of knowledge.
Stages of Introspection: Followings are the stages of Introspection.
- During the observation of an external object, the person beings to think over his own mental state.
- The person beings to question the working of his own mind.
- He tries to frame the laws and conditions of mental process.
Characteristics of Introspection: Followings are the characteristics features of the Introspection.
- The observatory subject gets direct, immediate and intuitive knowledge about the mind.
- The observatory subject has actually to observe his own mental processes. He cannot speculate about them.
Merits of Introspection: Introspection is the oldest method of educational psychology. Introspection means ‘self observation’, which means to look into one’s own mental state. In this method the individual is both the subject and the observer. Introspection has generated a lot of research in experimental studies.
1. It is an easy and simple method and provides direct observation of mental processes. By other scientific methods, the mental processes cannot be directly observed since those are purely private and personal experiences.
2. Introspection is the only method by which the person can be directly aware of his own experiences.
3. While using experimental method to study the mental activities, a laboratory and scientific instruments are required. But for the use of introspection method, no laboratory or test materials are required. So introspection method can be used at any time and at any place.
4. The subjective observation method provides an opportunity to check the results obtained through other methods. For example, the general finding is that the pleasant materials are better remembered than the unpleasant materials. Suppose, in an experiment the results suggested that the unpleasant materials were better remembered than the pleasant materials. The reason for this unexpected finding can be found from the introspective report given by the subject. The subject might have reported that he was inattentive or mentally disturbed or feeling unwell when the pleasant materials were presented to him. Here the introspective report would be helpful in explaining the results.
5. Contemplation is the least demanding of all strategies for instructive brain research.
6. It needn’t bother with any device or research facility as the subject and the examiner is the same.
7. It is the most efficient strategy and one which empowers us to think about the mental condition of an individual, i.e. his feelings and sentiments.
8. Reflection, as a strategy, has produced a considerable measure of examination and is utilized as a part of every single exploratory understudy.
9. It is the cheapest and most economical method. We do not need any apparatus or laboratory for its use.
10. This method can be used anytime and anywhere you can introspect while walking, travelling, and sitting on a bed & so on.
11. It is the easiest method and is readily available to the individual.
12. The introspection data are first hand as the person himself examines his own activities.
13. Introspection has generated research which gradually led to the development of more objective methods.
14. It is still used in all experimental investigation.
15. It is the only method with the help of which and individual can know his emotions and feelings.
Demerits of Introspection: Introspection is limited in its use; complex subjects such as learning, personality, mental disorders, and development are difficult or even impossible to study with this technique. The technique is difficult to use with children and impossible to use with animals. Followings are the demerits of Introspection.
(a)The observer is expected to perform two mental activities simultaneously. He experiences his mental processes, and at the same time analyzes what these experiences were like. At the same time, he acts as the ‘observed’, and the ‘observer’. Obviously, his mental experiences would be distorted, and not reflect the true nature of mental activities.
(b)The subjective observational report provided lacks objectivity, as the verbal report of the subject cannot be verified by other scientists. Furthermore, the experiences of one person cannot be generalized to understand the mental activity of another person. A universal principle concerning the mental processes cannot be stated, as mental processes would differ from person to person. Thus, the method lacks scientific validity.
(c)Most persons would not like to reveal their private experiences such as the feelings of guilt and shame. The report in such cases would be distorted
(d)The method of subjective observation cannot be applied to the study of the mental activities of the animals, children, insane, and persons having language disabilities. The behaviors of these subjects are of interest to the psychologists. Thus, introspection has only a limited applicability.
(e)The unconscious experiences cannot be accessed through introspection. The psychoanalytic school founded by Freud argues that most of human behaviors are influenced by the unconscious motives and urges. A person cannot observe his unconscious mental processes, which means that the method of subjective observation leaves out a large chunk of relevant mental experiences.
Some psychologists have suggested that the inherent difficulties with the method of subjective observation can be overcome by observing the mental process after it ends. He will have to recall the experiences immediately after the anger or fear responses and will give a report. But Titchener and others did not give importance to this type of post-mortem examination. It was viewed that retrospection is not actual observation of the mental process, but simply the recall of experiences and analysis of memory. Such reports cannot be taken for granted as accurate.
William James has pointed out the importance of this Introspection method in these words. “Introspective observation is what we have to rely on first and foremost and always. The word introspection can hardly be defined as it means, of course, looking into our own minds and reporting what we discover. Everyone agrees that we discover states of consciousness. So far as I know, the existence of such states has never been doubled by my critic, however sceptical in other respects we may have been.”
However, in the merits of Introspection, there are some limitations which fluctuates its impacts. But, In spite of the above mention merits the Introspection method is still used as a method in psychology, because it is the only method that provides direct observation of felling, emotion and mental process.
This description may be from another edition of this product. Based on interviews and other source material My Truth is a rare and vitally important book; the story of much of Indira Gandhi’s life in her own words. First published in India and France in 1980 when Mrs Gandhi was out of power, it now assumes an extra importance in view of her tragic and untimely death. Told simply and warmly, the book unfolds the life of a gifted person born into a remarkable family. There are evocative passages of her recollections of her grandfather and the days spent in Allahabad, of the heroes of her childhood, the books she admired, of Jawaharlal exhorting her to take to physical activities, of holidays in the hills, a dream, like childhood abruptly altered as her father plunged into the freedom movement. Then there are the disturbed years that followed: the death of Kamala Nehru: about whom the book offers a rare, beautiful portrait, Jawaharlal in and out of jail; Indira Gandhi’s varied education; travels with her father; studying at Oxford; her marriage to Feroze and an increasing involvement in public life, first as her father’s hostess and then more and more in her own right. From this point on My Truth transcends being simply the life-story of an important woman, it becomes too an insider’s account of India’s political history since independence. There are so many revelations about major events, many of which created huge controversies. While a great deal has been written by many on all of these events but Indira Gandhi’s was a unique vantage view: that of a central character in the high drama affecting the lives of millions and shaping the destiny of India. And, reading between the lines, My Truth lays bare the thought processes that shaped Mrs Gandhi’s responses and initiatives, the considerations of policy, the understanding of the context and broader perspectives. Every page of this book provides a fresh nuance of her personality. And at the end is a chapter about Indira Gandhi’s vision of India, its culture, land and people, problems and resources and her own personal outlook on life.
Release Date: May 1982
Publisher: Grove/Atlantic, Incorporated
Length: 224 Pages
Weight: 0.55 lbs.