Har Gobind Khorana was born in 09th January 1922 at Raipur a village in Multan, Punjab, India which is now in Pakistan. His mother Krishna Devi and Father Ganpat Rai Khorana had proud on them when they become an Indian American biochemist in the year 1968 after getting Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine . He had shared his research work with Marshall W. Nirenberg and Robert W. Holley to shown the order of nucleotides in nucleic acids of DNA which carry the genetic code of the cell and control the cell’s synthesis of proteins. H.G.Khorana and M.W.Nirenberg were also awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University in the same year.
He was the youngest of five children. His father was a Patwari, a village agricultural taxation clerk in the British Indian government. In his autobiography, Khorana wrote this summary: “Although poor, my father was dedicated to educating his children and we were practically the only literate family in the village inhabited by about 100 people.” The first four years of his education were provided under a tree, a spot that was, in effect, the only school in the village. He attended D.A.V. High School in Multan, in West Punjab. Later, he studied at the Punjab University in Lahore, with the assistance of scholarships, where he obtained a bachelor’s degree in 1943 and a Master of Science degree in 1945.
H.G. Khorana lived in British India until 1945, when he moved to England to study organic chemistry at the University of Liverpool on a Government of India Fellowship. He received his PhD in 1948. During a brief period in 1949, he was unable to find a job in his original home area in the Punjab. He returned to England on a fellowship to work with George Wallace Kenner and Alexander R. Todd on peptides and nucleotides. He stayed in Cambridge from 1950 until 1952. He married with Esther Elizabeth Sibler in 1952. They had met in Switzerland and had three children, Julia Elizabeth, Emily Anne, and Dave Roy.
In 1960 Khorana accepted a position as co-director of the Institute for Enzyme research at the Institute for Enzyme Research at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. He became a professor of biochemistry in 1962. His role was stated as follows: he “made important contributions to this field by building different RNA chains with the help of enzymes. Using these enzymes, he was able to produce proteins. The amino acid sequences of these proteins then solved the rest of the puzzle.”
He got US Citizenship and became a US citizen in 1966. Beginning in 1970, Khorana was the Alfred P. Sloan Professor of Biology and Chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and later, a member of the Board of Scientific Governors at The Scripps Research Institute. He retired from MIT in 2007. He was left this world on 09th November 2011 at Concord, Massachusetts, United States.