Category Archives: BIOGRAPHY

भारतीय स्वतन्त्रता संग्राम के प्रथम शहीद वीर तिलका माँझी

प्रथम वीर शहीद तिलका मांझी (11 फरवरी 1750, सुल्तानगंज – 15 जुलाई 1785, भागलपुर)

DR. SM JHA

तिलका माँझी का जन्म 11 फरवरी, 1750 को बिहार के सुल्तानगंज में ‘तिलकपुर’ नामक गाँव में एक संथाल परिवार में हुआ था। इनके पिता का नाम ‘सुंदरा मुर्मू’ था। तिलका माँझी को ‘जाबरा पहाड़िया’ के नाम से भी जाना जाता था। बचपन से ही तिलका माँझी जंगली सभ्यता की छाया में धनुष-बाण चलाते और जंगली जानवरों का शिकार करते। कसरत-कुश्ती करना बड़े-बड़े वृक्षों पर चढ़ना-उतरना, बीहड़ जंगलों, नदियों, भयानक जानवरों से छेड़खानी, घाटियों में घूमना आदि उनका रोजमर्रा का काम था। जंगली जीवन ने उन्हें निडर व वीर बना दिया था।

भारतीय स्वतन्त्रता संग्राम में तिलका माँझी का बहुत ही योगदान रहा है। तिलका माँझी एवं उनके द्वारा निर्मित सेना छापामार लड़ाई में काफी महारत हासिल कर रखा था जो अग्रेजों से लड़ाई के दौरान काफी काम आई। तिलका माँझी ऐसे प्रथम व्यक्ति थे, जिन्होंने भारत को ग़ुलामी से मुक्त कराने के लिए अंग्रेज़ों के विरुद्ध सबसे पहले आवाज़ उठाई थी, जो 90 वर्ष बाद 1857 में स्वाधीनता संग्राम के रूप में पुनः फूट पड़ी थी। एक युद्द के दौरान तिलका माँझी को अंग्रेज़ी सेना ने घेर लिया एवं इस महान् विद्रोही देशभक्त को बन्दी बना लिया और उनपर अत्याचार एवं कार्यवाही की गई। 15 जुलाई सन 1785, भागलपुर में इस महान देश भक्त को एक वट वृक्ष में रस्से से बांधकर फ़ाँसी दे दी गई। क्रान्तिकारी तिलका माँझी की स्मृति में भागलपुर में कचहरी के निकट, उनकी एक मूर्ति स्थापित की गयी है। तिलका माँझी भारत माता के अमर सपूत के रूप में सदा याद किये जाते रहेंगे।

VEER SHAHEED TILKA MANJHA : MEMORABLE STATUE AT BHAGALPUR – BIHAR

BIOGRAPHY OF INDIRA PRIYADARSHINI GANDHI: IRON LEDY OF INDIA

Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi was born on November 19, 1917 in Uttar Pradesh’s Allahabad. On her 102nd Birth Anniversary the nation remembers her contribution to National Security, Economy and Foreign Policy. She was often called as the ‘Iron Lady of India’. She was an Indian politician and a central figure of the Indian National Congress. She was the first and, to date, only female Prime Minister of India. Indira Gandhi was the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India. Throughout her political life, Indira Gandhi made the tough choices that were necessary for guaranteeing a strong, secular nation that lived up to its socialist ideals.

Born19 November 1917, Prayagraj

Died31 October 1984, New Delhi

SpouseFeroze Gandhi (1942–1960)

ChildrenRajiv GandhiSanjay Gandhi

EducationSomerville CollegeLa Châtaigneraie

 AwardsBharat RatnaLenin Peace PrizeJawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding

DR. HAR GOBIND KHURANA

DR. H.R. KHURANA ( BIOCHEMIST)
(09.01.1922 – 09.11.2011)

Har Gobind Khorana was born in 09th January 1922 at Raipur a village in Multan, Punjab, India  which is now in Pakistan. His mother Krishna Devi and Father Ganpat Rai Khorana had proud on them when they become an Indian American biochemist in the year 1968 after getting Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine . He had shared his research work with Marshall W. Nirenberg and Robert W. Holley to shown the order of nucleotides in nucleic acids of DNA which carry the genetic code of the cell and control the cell’s synthesis of proteins. H.G.Khorana and M.W.Nirenberg were also awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University in the same year.

He was the youngest of five children. His father was a Patwari, a village agricultural taxation clerk in the British Indian government. In his autobiography, Khorana wrote this summary: “Although poor, my father was dedicated to educating his children and we were practically the only literate family in the village inhabited by about 100 people.” The first four years of his education were provided under a tree, a spot that was, in effect, the only school in the village.  He attended D.A.V. High School in Multan, in West Punjab. Later, he studied at the Punjab University in Lahore, with the assistance of scholarships, where he obtained a bachelor’s degree in 1943  and a Master of Science degree in 1945.

H.G. Khorana lived in British India until 1945, when he moved to England to study organic chemistry at the University of Liverpool on a Government of India Fellowship. He received his PhD in 1948. During a brief period in 1949, he was unable to find a job in his original home area in the Punjab. He returned to England on a fellowship to work with George Wallace Kenner and Alexander R. Todd on peptides and nucleotides. He stayed in Cambridge from 1950 until 1952. He married with  Esther Elizabeth Sibler in 1952. They had met in Switzerland and had three children, Julia Elizabeth, Emily Anne, and Dave Roy.

In 1960 Khorana accepted a position as co-director of the Institute for Enzyme research at the Institute for Enzyme Research at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. He became a professor of biochemistry in 1962.  His role was  stated as follows: he “made important contributions to this field by building different RNA chains with the help of enzymes. Using these enzymes, he was able to produce proteins. The amino acid sequences of these proteins then solved the rest of the puzzle.”

He got US Citizenship and became a US citizen in 1966. Beginning in 1970, Khorana was the Alfred P. Sloan Professor of Biology and Chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and later, a member of the Board of Scientific Governors at The Scripps Research Institute. He retired from MIT in 2007.  He was left this world on 09th November 2011 at Concord, Massachusetts, United States.

BIOGRAPHY OF MAJOR DHYAN CHAND

( The Indian Hockey Wizard )

(NATIONAL SPORTS DAY – 29.08.2020)

MAJOR DHYAN CHAND – THE INDIAN HOCKY WIZARD

Major Dhyan Chand is synonymous to hockey in India. Famed for his excellent skills in the sport, Dhyan Chand was a hockey stalwart who brought home three Olympic gold medals. While global names like Adolf Hitler also acknowledged his excellence, the legend died in grave financial troubles. As the nation celebrates National Sports Day, the protest for honoring him with Bharat Ratna continues.

How often does the world witness a young man from a small Indian village politely declining the offer of German citizenship and a senior rank in the German Army, proposed by the stalwart of Nazism himself? The world held its breath when Major Dhyan Chand not only defeated the host country Germany in 1936 to bag a third Olympics gold for India but also refused to bow down in front of Fuhrer Adolf Hitler that pissed him to the extent of making an impulsive exit from the place. To everyone’s surprise, the leader, infamous for his harsh manners came back to the thronged stadium, smitten by Dhyan Chand’s swift moves with the hockey stick, only to propose the unpredictable offer, which Dhyan Chand refused to accept. For him, his nationality was not to be compromised.

Dhyan Chand, often called by the name ‘The Indian hockey wizard’,  had aced the national Indian sport so well that he was recognized as one of the finest hockey players not just in India but across the globe. No parallels can be drawn to his skills, till date.

Born to a British army sepoy, young Dhyan Chand was never about hockey. In fact, he had his heart in wrestling. Following the footsteps of his father, Dhyan Chand joined the army at a young age of seventeen after graduating from Gwalior’s Victoria College in 1922. For four years, he indulged himself in several sports, tournaments and regiments. However, it was the matches that he played along with the Indian army during their New Zealand tour that brought before the world, his impeccable skills.

With a spectacular victory in 18 matches, Dhyan Chand was immediately promoted to the higher rank of Lance Naik.

Meanwhile, India was working towards re-introducing field hockey and formulated the Indian Hockey Federation for the selection of best teams. Dhyan Chand also appeared for the selections and got picked up as an excellent player from the United Provinces, one of the five teams that participated in the selection. Little did he know that soon, he’ll be shining India’s mettle in hockey before the world.

The historic victory began a string of such episodes. With his lightning-fast swift movements and tricks, Dhyan Chand emerged as a hockey wizard. Known for always practising in the dark, Major Dhyan Singh bagged the title of Chand, a Hindi word for moon. With each match, the world witnessed a new Chand, who was always better than the last one. He won three Olympic gold medals for India; Amsterdam Summer Olympics 1928, Los Angeles Summer Olympics 1932 and 1936 Summer Olympics organised in Berlin, Germany. Dhyan Chand appeared for several domestic matches this while. “If anybody asked me which was the best match that I played in, I will unhesitatingly say that it was the 1933 Beighton Cup final between Calcutta Customs and Jhansi Heroes,” he had once told the media. It was in 1948 when he played his first international match. For his impeccable contributions, Dhyan Chand was awarded Padma Bhushan Award, the highest civilian award in India.

He, for sure, had a knack for perfection. He knew his sport well. Once, when Dhyan Chand was unable to score in a match, he argued with the match referee about the measurement of the goal post, a move that left many confused. However, to everybody’s amazement, he was right; the goal post was found to be in contravention of the official minimum width prescribed under international rules.

A patriot who felt betrayed (Major Dhyan Chand)

A sports legend who made his nation proud, was all alone in his last days in the general ward of Delhi’s All India Institute of Medical Sciences as he was suffering from liver cancer and was engulfed by financial distress. Neglected at the hands of his own people Chand felt betrayed.

Worried by the plight of hockey in India he said, “Hindustan ki hockey khatam ho gayi hai. Khiladiyon mein devotion nahin hai. Will to win khatam ho gaya hai.” (India’s hockey is finished. The players lack devotion. The will  to win has vanished), after which he relapsed into coma. Even in his last days, Dhyan Chand could not stop discussing hockey and its future in India.

India lost this gem to cancer on December 3, 1979, but his magic remained. From 2013, the Indian government started celebrating his birth anniversary, August 29, as the National Sports Day in which the President gives away sporting awards such as the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna, Arjuna Award, Dronacharya Award and the Dhyan Chand Award at the Rashtrapati Bhavan.

Years later, the wave of giving Dhyan Chand the due recognition by honouring him with Bharat Ratna, took over India. The former union sports minister Vijay Goel took forward this request to the Prime Minister’s office on June 7, 2017. However, to everyone’s surprise, instead of Dhyan Chand, the cricket legend Sachin Tendulkar, who was retiring from the sport, received the award.

This disappointed many and thus began a series of protests which stood for the legend.

“Why are we begging for the award for Dadda (Dhyan Chand). He should have been the first to get it. Whether he gets it or not, the cult of Dhyan Chand will remain forever,” the former India hockey coach AK Bansal, once told the Indian media.

“It’s a shame that a person who has done India proud in so many occasions hasn’t been given the highest honour of the country yet,” once said the ex-Indian Hockey captain Sandeep Singh while addressing one of the panel discussions held on National Sports Day.

“If we don’t want to recognize it as the national game then we also shouldn’t celebrate August 29, hockey legend Major Dhyan Chand’s birth anniversary, as National Sports Day in India,” he added. Legends like Dhyan Chand don’t require validation in the form of honors and awards. History has already been etched with their contributions.

PN PANICKER

P N PANICKER (1909 – 1995)

पीएन पैनिकर का जन्म 1 मार्च, 1909 को हुआ था। वह एक शिक्षक थे। उनका समाज पर काफी प्रभाव था। 1945 में 47 ग्रामीण पुस्तकालयों के साथ तिरुविथामकूर ग्रंथशाला संघम (त्रावणकोर लाइब्रेरी असोसिएशन) की स्थापना की गई। लाइब्रेरी की स्थापना की मुहिम का नेतृत्व उन्होंने किया। असोसिएशन का नारा था ‘पढ़ो और बढ़ो’। बाद में केरल राज्य के गठन के बाद असोसिएशन का नाम केरल ग्रंथशाला संघम हो गया। उन्होंने केरल के गांव-गांव की यात्रा की और लोगों को पढ़ने के महत्व से अवगत कराया। इस तरह उन्होंने अपने नेटवर्क में 6,000 से ज्यादा पुस्तकालयों को जोड़ने में सफलता हासिल की। 1975 में ग्रंथशाला को ‘कृपसकय अवॉर्ड’ से सम्मानित किया गया। 32 सालों तक पैनिकर संघम के जनरल सेक्रटरी रहे। फिर बाद में उस संस्था को सरकार ने अपने अधीन ले लिया। बाद में इसका नाम केरल स्टेट लाइब्रेरी काउंसिल हो गया।

इस साल कोविड-19 महामारी की वजह से देश भर में रीडिंग मंथ समारोह की शुरुआत ऑनलाइन मोड में हुई है। पीएन पैनिकर का निधन 19 जून को केरल में हुआ था। उनको केरल में पुस्तकालय आंदोलन का पिता कहा जाता है। अपने गृह नगर में एक अध्यापक के तौर पर पैनिकर ने 1926 में सदानाधर्मम पुस्तकालय की शुरुआत की थी। उनकी पुण्यतिथि के मौके पर देश भर में नैशनल रीडिंग डे मनाया जाता है।

Swami Vivekananda

SWAMI VIVEKANAND

Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902)[1] was an Indian Hindu monk and a key figure in the introduction of Indian philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga to the western world.[2] He was one of the most influential philosophers and social reformers in his contemporary India and the most successful and influential missionaries of Vedanta to the Western world.[3][4] Indian Nobel laureate poet Rabindranath Tagore‘s suggested to study the works of Vivekananda to understand India. He also told, in Vivekananda there was nothing negative, but everything positive.[5]

In last one century, hundreds of scholarly books have been written on Vivekananda, his works and his philosophy in different languages. Sister Nivedita, who was a disciple and a friend of Vivekananda, wrote two books The Master as I Saw Him and Notes of some wanderings with the Swami Vivekananda. The first one was published in 1910 and the second one was published in 1913.[6] Sister Gargi‘s lifelong research work, a series of six volumes of books, Swami Vivekananda in the West: New Discoveries was first published in two volumes in 1957. In 1983-87 these series was republished in six volumes.[7] Bengali scholar and critic Sankari Prasad Basu, who was a director of Swami Vivekananda Archives, Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture wrote several books on Vivekananda such as Vivekananda o Samakalin Bharatbarsha ((in Bengali) 7 volumes), Sahasya Vivekananda (in Bengali), Bandhu Vivekananda (in Bengali) etc.[8]

Monks of Ramakrishna Math and Mission too have written several notable books on the life and works of Vivekananda. Swami Vivekananda and Modern India written by Swami Jagadiswarananda was first published in 1941. In this book the author covered the biography of Vivekananda in brief.[5] Swami Nikhilananda wrote Vivekananda: A Biography which was first published in 1943 from Advaita Ashrama.[9] Yuganayak Vivekananda (in Bengali), written by Swami Gambhirananda was first published in 1966–1967.[7]

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bibliography_of_Swami_Vivekananda#Books_on_Swami_Vivekananda

DR. S. R. Ranganathan

DR SR RANGANATHAN

Dr. Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan (S.R.R.)[1] (listen (help·info) 12 August 1892 – 27 September 1972) was a librarian and mathematician from India.[2] His most notable contributions to the field were his five laws of library science and the development of the first major faceted classification system, the colon classification.[3] He is considered to be the father of library sciencedocumentation, and information science in India and is widely known throughout the rest of the world for his fundamental thinking in the field. His birthday is observed every year as the National Librarian’s Day in India.[4] He was a university librarian and professor of library science at Banaras Hindu University (1945–47) and professor of library science at the University of Delhi (1947–55). The last appointment made him director of the first Indian school of librarianship to offer higher degrees. He was president of the Indian Library Association from 1944 to 1953. In 1957 he was elected an honorary member of the International Federation for Information and Documentation (FID) and was made a vice-president for life of the Library Association of Great Britain

Ranganathan, born on 9 August 1892(Real) to Ramamrita, in Siyali (at present, Sirkazhi) in British-ruled India at Tanjavoor (at present, Ubayavethanthapuram, Thiruvarur District), Tamil Nadu.[1] His birth date is also written 12 August 1892 but he himself wrote his birth date 9 August 1892 in his book, The Five Laws of Library Science.

Ranganathan began his professional life as a mathematician; he earned B.A. and M.A. degrees in mathematics from Madras Christian College in his home province, and then went on to earn a teaching license. His lifelong goal was to teach mathematics, and he was successively a member of the mathematics faculties at universities in MangaloreCoimbatore and Madras. As a mathematics professor, he published papers mainly on the history of mathematics. His career as an educator was somewhat hindered by stammering (a difficulty he gradually overcame in his professional life). The Government of India awarded Padmashri to Dr. S.R. Ranganathan in 1957 for valuable contributions to Library Science.

Source :  HathiTrust Digital Library