Reproduction is defined as a biological process in which an organism gives rise to young ones (offspring) similar to itself. The offspring grow, mature and in turn produce new offspring.  Thus, there is a cycle of birth, growth and death. Reproduction enables the continuity of the species, generation after generation. You will study later in Chapter (Principles of Inheritance and Variation) how genetic variation is created and inherited during reproduction. There is a large diversity in the biological world and each organism has evolved its own mechanism to multiply and produce offspring.

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योग एक आध्यात्मिक प्रकिया है जिसमें शरीर, मन और आत्मा को एक साथ लाने का काम योग करता है। 11 दिसम्बर 2014 को संयुक्त राष्ट्र महासभा के मान्यता के बाद प्रत्येक वर्ष 21 जून को विश्व योग दिवसके रूप में मनाया जाता है।






वतन पे जो फिदा होगा, अमर वो नौजवाँ होगा

रहेगी जब तलक दुनिया, यह अफसाना बयां होगा

वतन पे जो फिदा होगा, अमर वो नौजवाँ होगा ।।

Good morning to you  ALL !!!

Most welcome all the dignitaries of  Kendriya Vidyalaya Namrup and Students National Player icons of Guwahati Region Mas. Deepak Giri, Badminton National Player, Ms. Ladli Mohan – Chess National Player, Ms. Nehal Nillofer – Chess National Player, Mas. Animesh Gogoi- Chess National Player, Mas. Pingal Pratush Singh – Chess National Player, Mas. Deepak Gupta – Badminton National Player, Mas. Bastav Saikia – Badminton National Player, Mas. Shan Ranjan Gogoi, Skipping National Player, Ms. Andrila Das- Yoga National Player, Ms. Luwang Lema Hizzam – Yoga National Player, Ms. Porismita Rajkhuwa – Table Tennis National Player and all the dignitaries of today,  whose auspicious presence in this events Birth Anniversary celebration  of the Indian Hockey Wizard Manjor Dhyan Chand.   

It’s gives me immense pleasure to have great an opportunities & privilege to speak few lines in the occasion of Birth Anniversary of  Major Dhyan Chand, Hockey Legends of India, in historical webinar of the this Kendriya Vidyalaya Namrup, KVS-Guwahati Region on the Topic – Importance of Games & Sports in Life.

Games and sports play a vital role to make us healthy and fit for work. It is very necessary in our life. It makes us fit, active, fresh and social. It teaches us a lesson of coordinate duty and discipline. It teaches us a lesson of brotherhood and national unity. Games and sports have much value in development of body is as important as that of a mind. A healthy mind dwells in a healthy body. Games and Sports keep the body fit and active.

Games and Sports are very necessary for life and their activities. It provides the best exercise to the body and shade body becomes active, gives shining on the face and skin. It developed the appetite of the body which makes more and stronger the body for fighting the unfavourable conditions of the environmental factors. Games and sports as well as physical exercises like aerobics and anaerobic are reflects the body parts and nourishment the organs to refresh them with new energy and force to provide the mobilization of the individuals daily activities in the life.

Games and Sports are good for the health. It refreshed the mind and keeps free from the diseases. It makes us more and more active and energetic. It provides the good values and qualities of power and divine energy by which our body and its systems become more efficient and powerful to fight against the harmful bacteria’s and viruses with their immunity. It develops our body immunity and immune the circulatory system, digestive system, respiratory system and nerves system which reflects as result to makes the better health system in physical life system of the mankind.

Games and sports develop the track of great personality and personalities of the leadership quality. These leadership quality and its impacts makes the track of the life which is very helpful the students as well as teachers and any individuals which have in interest with physical activities and Sports along with outdoor and indoor games. The students should must be the part of this games and sports for acquire the best energy level in the mind as well as body for the sound health and the prospects of future career building with the great motto as a person become positive thinking.

Games & Sports are an essential part of our life. It teaches us how to stay strong and healthy, and tests our physical abilities. Usually, when going in for sports, we compete with other people in order to get some entertainment. In the same time, physical exercises bring a bunch of great benefits for participants. All kinds of sports can bring strong physical health, great team abilities, and strong organizational features. It concerns football, basketball, hockey, and other team sports. The physiological and physical advantages obtained within sports activities result in enriched physical stamina and improved reflexes.

Games & Sports is one of the top activities which bring great results for people of any age. First, it helps to improve health significantly, including blood circulation and overall physical stamina. Second, it helps to make your body more flexible and responsive. Moreover, sports help to improve brain activity as well, making it the best way to avoid numerous possible aging illnesses.

Games & sport is a competition, it also brings numerous possibilities and allows improving ability to build proper tactics and strategies. Thus, you can develop your organizational and decision-making skills by going in for sports. Sports and games teach you how to think and respond quickly in order to succeed in your competition.

Games & Sport develops physical, social, and organizational skills improving people’s abilities to become a part of a team and always heading to the main goal. All these skills are beneficial in personal and professional life and must always be obtained.

When we look at the history and life of famous people, we can always find their life paths quite difficult and problematic. In the same time, all their wins are based on hard work, incredible patience, and numerous physical activities. Only the person who thinks and acts fast can succeed in the end. Sports are the best example of fast thoughts and on-time acting. This exact physical activity is aimed at improving people’s physical and social abilities. The continuous physical activities improve human health and brain activity greatly, bringing numerous additional benefits of sport.

Games & Sport is the best way to be involved in physical activities. Moreover, it is great to go in for sports starting from early childhood on a regular basis. People involved in sports gain additional strength and improve health greatly. In addition, it serves as the best method to keep yourself in good shape. You can improve your health, team building, and communication skills greatly when participating in various sports competitions, including Olympic Games. You can test your luck and the power of your desire to win as well. Sports improve our lives significantly and make us stronger and cleverer. Going in for sports and participating in various sports competitions are the best habits any person can have now a days.

In student’s life, extracurricular activities empower them to make their own active decisions and also help them to gain an accurate experience, skills, and confidence to lead them on the path of their future. It is truly considered that through participation in sports and different games, students learn cooperation, teamwork, leadership methods and time management. Games also help students by discovering their hidden talents, help them interact with different people and make them learn about many things outside their own environment. Well, they are also an easy and interesting way to learn appreciates new different activities. There are some types of games like billiards, board games and golf etc. which are considered recreational activities and they increase our mental, physical skills while enjoying the excitement of our shots. In the real sense, games affect a person’s psychological state of mind which leads to excitement and brings out the feeling of one being proud of an accomplishment. It also increases our capabilities and guides us in developing a better understanding of our own selves.

Games and Sports are a creative and mindful expression of the human spirit which comes out through the creation of an activity that has an entertaining, flexible, instructive and competing for an element. It explores and test people’s skills, efforts and invites them to develop new ways of managing the obstacles which stop them from attaining the game’s goal. Games are the positive experience which helps in the strengthening of our body and mind. Some games are also considered structured activities like cycling, cricket, swimming and football etc which helps us to take active decisions and sharpens our thinking process also.

Advantages of Games in Life

  1. Competition Factor: It generates a healthy, fair and strong spirit of competition. It also conducts that positive competition is the best and active way of competition in the student’s life.
  2. Discipline Factor: It makes the child more active, patient and disciplined. 
  3. Unity Factor: It teaches us about teamwork, sense of belonging and unselfish play. And also it encourages us to play for the team rather than for our personal accomplishment.
  4. Strength Factor: It keeps our body in good shape and always gives strength to out physical fitness. It also tones up muscles and strengthens the bones of our body. 
  5. Confidence Factor: It boosts our morale when we perform and also when we excel towards particular skills. On the other hands, it improves our self-esteem and body postures as well, which makes us feel more confident and determined. 
  6. Energy & Building Factor: It improves our body immune system which gives us good health and body. It also channelizes and maintains our physical and mental energy in a more strong, active and positive manner. It gives us a lot of inspiration and energizes our body.

Games and Sports give us encouragement to face all the hard challenges of life. It provides us physical strength which is always needed for doing our work. It is conducted that without games, people usually become dull, boring, pessimistic and failure in life. There are different types of games and sports in life, but few of them are very much significant like running games – rugby, football, hockey and race etc which develops our agility power. Another is jumping games like – volleyball, badminton and basketball etc which increases our height and also reduce our weight. Well, both games are also an important part of education and help the students in the development of the physique and mind. Games teach us the value of discipline and sportsmanship in life. It also helps in the development of our character and positive outlook. Well, the syllabus of schools and colleges should be planned in such a manner that studies and games can be balanced for developing out the personality of the students.

Games have great and significant value in a student’s life. It is truly believed that the foundations for good and successful life are laid in the school always. The sports field and medium of different games teach many optimistic things to the students in life. It also develops a strong physique, team spirit, valiant will-power, sportsmanship, cheerful nature, good sense of humour and positive attitude among students. Well, all these are important and useful traits of successful and meaningful life. All the students should study properly and diligently and still take parts in games and sports to achieve an all-rounder and ideal personality in their life. In the field of sports, a student learns etiquettes, manners, positive attitude and also the capacity to face victory and defeat in a good spirit. This spirit gives an impartial and unbiased outlook in-front off all others.

Games play an important and valuable role in a student’s life. The essence of games in a student’s life is for providing them with a creative environment which promotes their individuality, mental ability, thinking power and their all efforts came into existence. Games always enhance the abilities and skills of children and develop their challenging spirits. It helps us in the development of a healthy mind and fit body. It is truly observed that a healthy mind resides in a healthy body, so games should be practised on a regular basis among all the students.


It is great when people know about all the benefits of Games & sports. In the same time, authorities should promote sports and games among young people to keep them healthy and fit. In fact, sports allow improving people’s lives significantly, including the mentioned physical shape, blood pressure, brain activity, etc. Every nation and society must reveal the importance of sports for people to let them improve their health and life in general. With a strong love for sports, people can easily physically fit any community or society. Healthy and happy people always make proper life decisions and advise very wise solutions. Besides, sports are always developing a sense of natural competitiveness and goal-oriented personal approach.

Once dealing with Games & sports activity, every person can improve the physiological functions of the body organs and improve the functionality of the entire organism. Sports allow keeping the body healthy and mind peaceful. It is the best therapy for numerous diseases. Sport prolongs people’s lives and makes them more active and satisfied with life in general.  If you want to reach the biggest goals in sports, it is easy to build a great professional sports career if to pay enough time and efforts. When you can control your body and make it stronger every day, you can be fully satisfied with your body and mind functioning. Sports also teach you to work in a team and obtain team goals easily taking care of every team member’s thoughts and desires. Therefore, sport should be promoted in schools and colleges for sure.


The nation always needs its heroes to have someone to be a guiding star for a young generation. There are numerous Examples of Games & Sports personalities with their efforts and hard work show that everything is possible in this world. Also, they demonstrate the great effects of constant sports activities and team sports participation. These people give us a strong motivation to go in for sports and become better every day. Well-known athletes encourage the youth in the country and outline for them every great advantage of sports.

As you can see, Games & sports importance for people in the country is really impressive and impeccable. Sports provide a bunch of advantages and improve people’s lives significantly. With regular sports activity, it is easy to keep a good shape, improve physical stamina and brain activity. In addition, sports teach us how to work in a team and gain team goals easily. Sports are the foundation of a healthy and strong nation that remains a strong coalition of clever and hardworking people.


The Importance of Games & Sports is aimed at showing people the strong need for sports activities for the young generation. Sports can bring a bunch of benefits for youth, including general health, together with blood circulation and overall physical stamina improvement. Sport develops and improves people’s physical, social, and organizational skills, which are beneficial in personal and professional life and must always be obtained. Regular Exercise, Physical activities, Outdoor- Indoor Games as well as spontaneous movement with the factors of the sports makes a man very active, splendid, bold and strong physical health to acquires all the desired aspects of the modern life style which modified them for facing all the challenges in the critical and unfavourable life style in the society.

Games and sports are a necessary part of education. The students can build their health in good shape by playing different games. It is truly said that Education without games is incomplete. It teaches us discipline, patience and sportsmanship. It also provides a good excitement and enjoyment in the dull and boring life of students. The aim of education is the all-round development of a complete personality of a person so; the physical aspect of a student should not be neglected. As we all know that the development of mind and body are equally important in the way of good education. Games and sports are an integral part of education that’s why without physical training, exercise and games – education will be incomplete at all. Well, along with the education, games also prepare all of us to stand up and face all the hard challenges of life. While playing games, students will be taking a good intake of oxygen, their blood circulation will increase and greater digestion will be there.

Games and sports teach the students to co-operate with one another and achieve success in life. They develop our skills and abilities to get the best and maximum output from us. They also teach us values of obedience, manners and strict discipline. It is quite very important for all of us to follow all the rules and regulations of games because it helps us for becoming professionals, good leaders and disciplined citizens. It teaches us fair play and to keep faith in equality and justice. They also enable us in a positive manner to take defeat and victory both in a cheerful and appreciating way in life. Games also provide us with the best use of our leisure time. They are proved real boon and blessing for all students. Games also develop and promote patriotism and national integration among people in various different forms of playing. It is the responsibility of schools and college administration to train all the students and the teachers to give the opportunities in different stages of games and sports from the level of the primary stages. It is conducted truly that books develop our mind, but games develop our body. Games and sports are the best media for achieving all the targets of education and health in schools and colleges. Rather than education, games also provide mental, physical, emotional and psychological development of an individual student. For bringing up a healthy spirit of competition among the students, for building up decision making skill and also to ensure all rounder development of the personality of a student as well as the teachers individuals for the academic excellence.

Thank you all and have a Nice Day Ahead.

Thank You very Much !!!


( The Indian Hockey Wizard )

(NATIONAL SPORTS DAY – 29.08.2020)


Major Dhyan Chand is synonymous to hockey in India. Famed for his excellent skills in the sport, Dhyan Chand was a hockey stalwart who brought home three Olympic gold medals. While global names like Adolf Hitler also acknowledged his excellence, the legend died in grave financial troubles. As the nation celebrates National Sports Day, the protest for honoring him with Bharat Ratna continues.

How often does the world witness a young man from a small Indian village politely declining the offer of German citizenship and a senior rank in the German Army, proposed by the stalwart of Nazism himself? The world held its breath when Major Dhyan Chand not only defeated the host country Germany in 1936 to bag a third Olympics gold for India but also refused to bow down in front of Fuhrer Adolf Hitler that pissed him to the extent of making an impulsive exit from the place. To everyone’s surprise, the leader, infamous for his harsh manners came back to the thronged stadium, smitten by Dhyan Chand’s swift moves with the hockey stick, only to propose the unpredictable offer, which Dhyan Chand refused to accept. For him, his nationality was not to be compromised.

Dhyan Chand, often called by the name ‘The Indian hockey wizard’,  had aced the national Indian sport so well that he was recognized as one of the finest hockey players not just in India but across the globe. No parallels can be drawn to his skills, till date.

Born to a British army sepoy, young Dhyan Chand was never about hockey. In fact, he had his heart in wrestling. Following the footsteps of his father, Dhyan Chand joined the army at a young age of seventeen after graduating from Gwalior’s Victoria College in 1922. For four years, he indulged himself in several sports, tournaments and regiments. However, it was the matches that he played along with the Indian army during their New Zealand tour that brought before the world, his impeccable skills.

With a spectacular victory in 18 matches, Dhyan Chand was immediately promoted to the higher rank of Lance Naik.

Meanwhile, India was working towards re-introducing field hockey and formulated the Indian Hockey Federation for the selection of best teams. Dhyan Chand also appeared for the selections and got picked up as an excellent player from the United Provinces, one of the five teams that participated in the selection. Little did he know that soon, he’ll be shining India’s mettle in hockey before the world.

The historic victory began a string of such episodes. With his lightning-fast swift movements and tricks, Dhyan Chand emerged as a hockey wizard. Known for always practising in the dark, Major Dhyan Singh bagged the title of Chand, a Hindi word for moon. With each match, the world witnessed a new Chand, who was always better than the last one. He won three Olympic gold medals for India; Amsterdam Summer Olympics 1928, Los Angeles Summer Olympics 1932 and 1936 Summer Olympics organised in Berlin, Germany. Dhyan Chand appeared for several domestic matches this while. “If anybody asked me which was the best match that I played in, I will unhesitatingly say that it was the 1933 Beighton Cup final between Calcutta Customs and Jhansi Heroes,” he had once told the media. It was in 1948 when he played his first international match. For his impeccable contributions, Dhyan Chand was awarded Padma Bhushan Award, the highest civilian award in India.

He, for sure, had a knack for perfection. He knew his sport well. Once, when Dhyan Chand was unable to score in a match, he argued with the match referee about the measurement of the goal post, a move that left many confused. However, to everybody’s amazement, he was right; the goal post was found to be in contravention of the official minimum width prescribed under international rules.

A patriot who felt betrayed (Major Dhyan Chand)

A sports legend who made his nation proud, was all alone in his last days in the general ward of Delhi’s All India Institute of Medical Sciences as he was suffering from liver cancer and was engulfed by financial distress. Neglected at the hands of his own people Chand felt betrayed.

Worried by the plight of hockey in India he said, “Hindustan ki hockey khatam ho gayi hai. Khiladiyon mein devotion nahin hai. Will to win khatam ho gaya hai.” (India’s hockey is finished. The players lack devotion. The will  to win has vanished), after which he relapsed into coma. Even in his last days, Dhyan Chand could not stop discussing hockey and its future in India.

India lost this gem to cancer on December 3, 1979, but his magic remained. From 2013, the Indian government started celebrating his birth anniversary, August 29, as the National Sports Day in which the President gives away sporting awards such as the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna, Arjuna Award, Dronacharya Award and the Dhyan Chand Award at the Rashtrapati Bhavan.

Years later, the wave of giving Dhyan Chand the due recognition by honouring him with Bharat Ratna, took over India. The former union sports minister Vijay Goel took forward this request to the Prime Minister’s office on June 7, 2017. However, to everyone’s surprise, instead of Dhyan Chand, the cricket legend Sachin Tendulkar, who was retiring from the sport, received the award.

This disappointed many and thus began a series of protests which stood for the legend.

“Why are we begging for the award for Dadda (Dhyan Chand). He should have been the first to get it. Whether he gets it or not, the cult of Dhyan Chand will remain forever,” the former India hockey coach AK Bansal, once told the Indian media.

“It’s a shame that a person who has done India proud in so many occasions hasn’t been given the highest honour of the country yet,” once said the ex-Indian Hockey captain Sandeep Singh while addressing one of the panel discussions held on National Sports Day.

“If we don’t want to recognize it as the national game then we also shouldn’t celebrate August 29, hockey legend Major Dhyan Chand’s birth anniversary, as National Sports Day in India,” he added. Legends like Dhyan Chand don’t require validation in the form of honors and awards. History has already been etched with their contributions.


P N PANICKER (1909 – 1995)

पीएन पैनिकर का जन्म 1 मार्च, 1909 को हुआ था। वह एक शिक्षक थे। उनका समाज पर काफी प्रभाव था। 1945 में 47 ग्रामीण पुस्तकालयों के साथ तिरुविथामकूर ग्रंथशाला संघम (त्रावणकोर लाइब्रेरी असोसिएशन) की स्थापना की गई। लाइब्रेरी की स्थापना की मुहिम का नेतृत्व उन्होंने किया। असोसिएशन का नारा था ‘पढ़ो और बढ़ो’। बाद में केरल राज्य के गठन के बाद असोसिएशन का नाम केरल ग्रंथशाला संघम हो गया। उन्होंने केरल के गांव-गांव की यात्रा की और लोगों को पढ़ने के महत्व से अवगत कराया। इस तरह उन्होंने अपने नेटवर्क में 6,000 से ज्यादा पुस्तकालयों को जोड़ने में सफलता हासिल की। 1975 में ग्रंथशाला को ‘कृपसकय अवॉर्ड’ से सम्मानित किया गया। 32 सालों तक पैनिकर संघम के जनरल सेक्रटरी रहे। फिर बाद में उस संस्था को सरकार ने अपने अधीन ले लिया। बाद में इसका नाम केरल स्टेट लाइब्रेरी काउंसिल हो गया।

इस साल कोविड-19 महामारी की वजह से देश भर में रीडिंग मंथ समारोह की शुरुआत ऑनलाइन मोड में हुई है। पीएन पैनिकर का निधन 19 जून को केरल में हुआ था। उनको केरल में पुस्तकालय आंदोलन का पिता कहा जाता है। अपने गृह नगर में एक अध्यापक के तौर पर पैनिकर ने 1926 में सदानाधर्मम पुस्तकालय की शुरुआत की थी। उनकी पुण्यतिथि के मौके पर देश भर में नैशनल रीडिंग डे मनाया जाता है।

My experiments with truth by M K Gandhi

This remarkable autobiography of the ‘father of the nation’ M.K Gandhi fondly referred to as Mahatma Gandhi is a telling portrayal of the mahatma’s unusual journey of life. Marked by real and instantly identifiable trysts with reality, The book brings the reader closer to Gandhi’s evolution from the loss of a childhood emanating from arranged marriage all the way to his self-realization and active determination to be the author of his own story. An autobiography: the story of My experiments with truth by Mohandas K. Gandhi traces his life from his birth in R until the end of 1920 by when his policy of non-cooperation with the government is passed by the all-india Congress Committee. The story begins with Gandhi’s childhood in the R and Rajkot where he is educated in the local schools until he finishes high school and gets married at the age of 13 to A woman named kasturbai, who we later learn about as a pillar of support right till the end. From there on till his work in South Africa, where he is forced to return to India due to the outbreak of WW1 Gandhi’s book accurately reveals his General goal and intent of life – his steadfast search for truth.

About the Author The man best known as Gandhi’s longest running companion of 25 years, Mahadev Desai was a lawyer by education and a scholar by disposition. He was responsible for transcribing Gandhi’s words and drafting his letters as well as serving as interpreter and interlocutor. So devoted was he to the Mahatma that he even followed Gandhi to jail. Desai was in many ways far more learned and scholarly than Gandhi, tutoring him on history, literature and politics besides other subjects. Desai wrote his most important works on Gandhi during the time that Gandhi was incarcerated in the Yarvada Jail near Pune, Maharashtra from 1931 to 1934. When arrested during the Quit India movement and sent to the Aga Khan Palace for imprisonment, Desai died on August 15th, 1942 at the young age of 50. Gandhi considered it a tragedy and loss to have lost someone Kasturba and he considered a son. Desai’s death was mourned by Gandhi’s supporters throughout the country.

Book details • Item Weight : 600 g • Paperback : 454 pages • ISBN-10 : 9387585204 • ISBN-13 : 978-9387585201 • Publisher : Amazing Reads (20 March 2019) • Language: : English • Best-sellers rank #5,275 in Books (See Top 100 in Books) #257 in Biographies & Autobiographies (Books) • Customer Reviews: 4.5 out of 5 stars 393 ratings • Source:

Sir Isaac Newton

SIR ISSAK NEWTON (1643 – 1727)

Isaac Newton was a physicist and mathematician who developed the principles of modern physics, including the laws of motion and is credited as one of the great minds of the 17th-century Scientific Revolution

In 1687, he published his most acclaimed work, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), which has been called the single most influential book on physics. In 1705, he was knighted by Queen Anne of England, making him Sir Isaac Newton. 

Newton was born on January 4, 1643, in Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, England. Using the “old” Julian calendar, Newton’s birth date is sometimes displayed as December 25, 1642.

Newton was the only son of a prosperous local farmer, also named Isaac, who died three months before he was born. A premature baby born tiny and weak, Newton was not expected to survive.

When he was 3 years old, his mother, Hannah Ayscough Newton, remarried a well-to-do minister, Barnabas Smith, and went to live with him, leaving young Newton with his maternal grandmother. 

Newton was enrolled at the King’s School in Grantham, a town in Lincolnshire, where he lodged with a local apothecary and was introduced to the fascinating world of chemistry.

His mother pulled him out of school at age 12. Her plan was to make him a farmer and have him tend the farm. Newton failed miserably, as he found farming monotonous. Newton was soon sent back to King’s School to finish his basic education.

Perhaps sensing the young man’s innate intellectual abilities, his uncle, a graduate of the University of Cambridge’s Trinity College, persuaded Newton’s mother to have him enter the university. Newton enrolled in a program similar to a work-study in 1661, and subsequently waited on tables and took care of wealthier students’ rooms.

When Newton arrived at Cambridge, the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century was already in full force. The heliocentric view of the universe—theorized by astronomers Nicolaus Copernicus and Johannes Kepler, and later refined by Galileo—was well known in most European academic circles.

Philosopher René Descartes had begun to formulate a new concept of nature as an intricate, impersonal and inert machine. Yet, like most universities in Europe, Cambridge was steeped in Aristotelian philosophy and a view of nature resting on a geocentric view of the universe, dealing with nature in qualitative rather than quantitative terms.

During his first three years at Cambridge, Newton was taught the standard curriculum but was fascinated with the more advanced science. All his spare time was spent reading from the modern philosophers. The result was a less-than-stellar performance, but one that is understandable, given his dual course of study.

It was during this time that Newton kept a second set of notes, entitled “Quaestiones Quaedam Philosophicae” (“Certain Philosophical Questions”). The “Quaestiones” reveal that Newton had discovered the new concept of nature that provided the framework for the Scientific Revolution. Though Newton graduated without honors or distinctions, his efforts won him the title of scholar and four years of financial support for future education.

In 1665, the bubonic plague that was ravaging Europe had come to Cambridge, forcing the university to close. After a two-year hiatus, Newton returned to Cambridge in 1667 and was elected a minor fellow at Trinity College, as he was still not considered a standout scholar.

Newton made discoveries in optics, motion and mathematics. Newton theorized that white light was a composite of all colors of the spectrum, and that light was composed of particles. 

His momentous book on physics, Principia, contains information on nearly all of the essential concepts of physics except energy, ultimately helping him to explain the laws of motion and the theory of gravity. Along with mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, Newton is credited for developing essential theories of calculus. 

Newton’s first major public scientific achievement was designing and constructing a reflecting telescope in 1668. As a professor at Cambridge, Newton was required to deliver an annual course of lectures and chose optics as his initial topic. He used his telescope to study optics and help prove his theory of light and color. 

The Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope in 1671, and the organization’s interest encouraged Newton to publish his notes on light, optics and color in 1672. These notes were later published as part of Newton’s Opticks: Or, A treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, Inflections and Colours of Light.

Thinking Mode of Sir Issak Newton


Swami Vivekananda


Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902)[1] was an Indian Hindu monk and a key figure in the introduction of Indian philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga to the western world.[2] He was one of the most influential philosophers and social reformers in his contemporary India and the most successful and influential missionaries of Vedanta to the Western world.[3][4] Indian Nobel laureate poet Rabindranath Tagore‘s suggested to study the works of Vivekananda to understand India. He also told, in Vivekananda there was nothing negative, but everything positive.[5]

In last one century, hundreds of scholarly books have been written on Vivekananda, his works and his philosophy in different languages. Sister Nivedita, who was a disciple and a friend of Vivekananda, wrote two books The Master as I Saw Him and Notes of some wanderings with the Swami Vivekananda. The first one was published in 1910 and the second one was published in 1913.[6] Sister Gargi‘s lifelong research work, a series of six volumes of books, Swami Vivekananda in the West: New Discoveries was first published in two volumes in 1957. In 1983-87 these series was republished in six volumes.[7] Bengali scholar and critic Sankari Prasad Basu, who was a director of Swami Vivekananda Archives, Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture wrote several books on Vivekananda such as Vivekananda o Samakalin Bharatbarsha ((in Bengali) 7 volumes), Sahasya Vivekananda (in Bengali), Bandhu Vivekananda (in Bengali) etc.[8]

Monks of Ramakrishna Math and Mission too have written several notable books on the life and works of Vivekananda. Swami Vivekananda and Modern India written by Swami Jagadiswarananda was first published in 1941. In this book the author covered the biography of Vivekananda in brief.[5] Swami Nikhilananda wrote Vivekananda: A Biography which was first published in 1943 from Advaita Ashrama.[9] Yuganayak Vivekananda (in Bengali), written by Swami Gambhirananda was first published in 1966–1967.[7]


DR. S. R. Ranganathan


Dr. Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan (S.R.R.)[1] (listen (help·info) 12 August 1892 – 27 September 1972) was a librarian and mathematician from India.[2] His most notable contributions to the field were his five laws of library science and the development of the first major faceted classification system, the colon classification.[3] He is considered to be the father of library sciencedocumentation, and information science in India and is widely known throughout the rest of the world for his fundamental thinking in the field. His birthday is observed every year as the National Librarian’s Day in India.[4] He was a university librarian and professor of library science at Banaras Hindu University (1945–47) and professor of library science at the University of Delhi (1947–55). The last appointment made him director of the first Indian school of librarianship to offer higher degrees. He was president of the Indian Library Association from 1944 to 1953. In 1957 he was elected an honorary member of the International Federation for Information and Documentation (FID) and was made a vice-president for life of the Library Association of Great Britain

Ranganathan, born on 9 August 1892(Real) to Ramamrita, in Siyali (at present, Sirkazhi) in British-ruled India at Tanjavoor (at present, Ubayavethanthapuram, Thiruvarur District), Tamil Nadu.[1] His birth date is also written 12 August 1892 but he himself wrote his birth date 9 August 1892 in his book, The Five Laws of Library Science.

Ranganathan began his professional life as a mathematician; he earned B.A. and M.A. degrees in mathematics from Madras Christian College in his home province, and then went on to earn a teaching license. His lifelong goal was to teach mathematics, and he was successively a member of the mathematics faculties at universities in MangaloreCoimbatore and Madras. As a mathematics professor, he published papers mainly on the history of mathematics. His career as an educator was somewhat hindered by stammering (a difficulty he gradually overcame in his professional life). The Government of India awarded Padmashri to Dr. S.R. Ranganathan in 1957 for valuable contributions to Library Science.

Source :  HathiTrust Digital Library